About

Nicolae Paulescu (November 08, 1869 - July 17, 1931 ) was a Romanian physiologist, professor of medicine, and 
a discoverer of insulin (which he termed pancreatine). 


Nicolae Paulescu 

Born in Bucharest, he was the first of four children of father Costache Paulescu and mother Maria Paulescu. He 

displayed remarkable abilities as early as his first school years. He learned French, Latin and Ancient Greek at an early age, so that a few 
years later he became fluent in all these languages and was able to read classical works of Latin and Greek literature in the original. He also 
had a particular gift for drawing and music and special inclinations towards natural sciences, such as physics and chemistry. He graduated from 
the Mihai Viteazu High School in Bucharest, in 1888. In the autumn of 1888, Paulescu left for Paris, where he enrolled in medical school. In 1897 
he graduated with a Doctor of Medicine degree, and was immediately appointed as assistant surgeon at the Notre-Dame du Perpetuel- 
Secours Hospital. In 1900, Paulescu returned to Romania, where he remained until his death (1931) as Head of the Physiology Department of 
the University of Bucharest Medical School, as well as a Professor of Clinical Medicine at the St Vincent de Paul Hospital in Bucharest.ln 
1990, he was elected posthumously to the RomanianAcademy. On June 27, 1993, in Cluj-Napoca, a postmark was dedicated in Paulescu's 
honor to observe the World Day Against Diabetes. Paulescu was also honored on a postage stamp issued by Romania in 1994. The stamp is 
one in a set of seven stamps honoring famous Romanians. In 1993, a new Institute of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases in Bucharest 
was named in his honor. Paulescu died in 1931 in Bucharest. He is buried in Bellu cemetery, t 1 ' 

Paulescu's discovery of insulin 

In 1916, he succeeded in developing an aqueous pancreatic extract which, when injected into a diabetic dog, proved to have a normalizing 
effect on blood sugar levels. After a gap during World War I, he resumed his research and succeeded in isolating the antidiabetic pancreatic 
hormone (pancreine) J- 2 ] 

From April 24 to June 23, 1921, Paulescu published four papers at the Romanian Section of the Society of Biology in Paris: 

■ The effect of the pancreatic extract injected into a diabetic animal by way of the blood. 

■ The influence of the time elapsed from the intravenous pancreatic injection into a diabetic animal. 

■ The effect of the pancreatic extract injected into a normal animal by way of the blood. 

An extensive paper on this subject - Research on the Role of the Pancreas in Food Assimilation - was submitted by Paulescu on June 22 to 
the Archives Internationales de Physiologie in Liege, Belgium, and was published in the August 1 921 issue of this journal. 

Furthermore, Paulescu secured the patent rights for his method of manufacturing pancreine (his own term for insulin) on April 10, 1922 (patent 
no. 6254) from the Romanian Ministry of Industry and Trade. 



Nobel Prize controversy 



Since 1 921 Professor Paulescu discovered insulin, the substance which, year after year, saved the lives of millions and millions of people 
suffering from diabetes. Paulescu secured patent rights for the method of manufacturing insulin (under the name pancreine) the Ministry of 
Industry and Commerce on April 10, 1922. Eight months after Paulescu's works were published, doctor Frederick Grant Banting and biochemist 
John James Richard Macleod from the University of Toronto, Canada, published their paper on the successful use of a pancreatic extract for 
normalizing blood sugar (glucose) levels (glycemia) in diabetic dogs. Their paper was nothing more than a confirmation of Paulescu's work, 
making direct references to Paulescu's article but misquoting that article as follows: 

"He [Paulescu] states that injections into peripheral veins produce no effect and his experiments show that second injections do not produce 
such marked effect as the first", 



Which is not what Paulescu found out or presented. Later on, Banting said that: 

"I regret very much that there was an error in our translation of Professor Paulescu's article, I cannot recollect, after this length of time, exactly 
what happened (...) I do not remember whether we relied on our own poor French or whether we had a translation made. In any case I would like 

Web2 3 DF 

converted by Web2PDFConvert.com 



to state how sorry I am for this unfortunate error (...)" 

Some have noted that while Paulescu had patented his technique in Romania, no clinical use resulted from his work and that the work published 
by Banting, Best, Collip and McLeod represented the injection of purified insulin extract into a diabetic individual ameliorating symptoms of the 
disease. Thus, this is sometimes used to argue that it was reasonable that Banting and Macleod received the 1923 Nobel Prize in Physiology 
or Medicine for the discovery of insulin. It has also been pointed out that Collip and Best were also left out from the prize, but Banting and 
McLeod decided to share the prize money with them. International recognition for Paulescu's contribution to the discovery of insulin came only 
years later after. 

Professor Ian Murray was particularly active in working to correct the great historical wrong against Paulescu. Murray was a professor of 
physiology at the Anderson College of Medicine in Glasgow, Scotland, the head of the department of Metabolic Diseases at a leading Glasgow 
hospital, vice-president of the British Association of Diabetes, and a founding member of the International Diabetes Federation. In an article for 
a 1971 issue of the Journal of the History of Medicine and Allied Sciences, Murray wrote: 

" Insufficient recognition has been given to Paulesco, the distinguished Roumanian scientist, vJho at the time when the Toronto 
team were commencing their research had already succeeded in extracting the antidiabetic hormone of the pancreas and 
proving its efficacy in reducing the hyperglycaemia in diabetic dogs." 

"In a recent private communication Professor Tiselius, head of the Nobel Institute, has expressed his personal opinion that 
Paulescu was equally worthy of the award in 1923."^ 

Political Activity and Works on the Jewish Problem 

Paulescu is also notable for his involvement in Romanian political movements and influencing Corneliu Zelea Codreanu. In 1922, he partnered 
with professor A. C. Cuza to create a political group called the National Christian Union. In 1925, Paulescu joined Cuza's later organization, the 
National Christian Defense League. About this, Codreanu commented in his book For My Legionaries: "Now with us also was the erudite 
professor of physiology Nicolae Paulescu at the University of Bucharest, connoisseur without equal of Judeo-masonic manipulations, who 
illumined the national movement in the capital." t 4 l 

Nicolae Paulescu's better-known works began in 1 91 with Fiziologia Filozofica: Instincte Sociale - patimi si conflicte - remedii morale 
("Philosophic Physiology: Social Instincts - passion and conflict - moral remedies"), the first volume of "Philosophic Physiology", which argued 
that people must overcome their negative passions and regenerate through Christian education by following the demands of the Gospels. ! 5 1 

However, Paulescu's most famous book came with the second volume of "Philosophic Physiology" which was titled Fiziologia Filozofica: 
Spitalul, Coranul, Talmudul, Cahalul, Franc-Masoneria ("Philosophic Physiology: The Hospital, the Koran, the Talmud, the Kahal and 
Freemasonry"). In this book, Paulescu first explains the duties of doctors, the purpose of hospitals, and their relation to Christian rules and 
charity. He then moves on to the Koran, dealing with Islamic laws and history, concluding that Muslim Arabs and Jews both tend to be very 
greedy, but that Muslims are better in that they are brave unlike the Jews. Moving onto the Talmud, he goes through Jewish Talmudic teachings, 
how they teach Jews that they have no moral obligations to Gentiles and may deceive and steal from them in various ways. In the section on the 
Kahal, Paulescu first explains the organization of the Kahal and how its strict laws and system keep most Jews under its domination. He then 
discusses the effects of Jewish manipulation of finance and trade as well as Jewish revolutionary activity in various nations. Finally, he 
discusses Freemasonry, its a nti -Christian teachings and its Jewish origins as well as its role in the French Revolution and other revolutions in 
the 19th Century. ® 

He explains how the activities of the Kahal and Freemasonry are interlinked, since Jews came to dominate Freemasonry: 

"The Kahal is the corrupting factor which changes our state - it is the cause of the seizure, the trusts, the failures that undermine 
trade, industry and agriculture in Romania - it is the body that wanders through the public newspapers which it subsidizes - it is the 
agent spreading the insidious ideas of materialism and liberalism, socialism, anarchism- it is the power of occult Freemasonry. The 
Kahal is, finally, the agent of revolutions that shook the world and, for some time, troubled the peace of the wretched Romanian 
people. This is the occult Jewish power against which mankind is disarmed, because they do not know." I 7 ! 

In the conclusion of "The Hospital, the Koran, the Talmud, the Kahal and Freemasonry", Paulescu summarized his message: 

"While the Christian apostles preached their ideal in the open, the Talmud hides; and its two appendages, the Kahal and 
Freemasonry, are even more invisible. The three of them use, in order to remain in the dark, a scabrous and accursed means, 
namely the lie. In other words, the lie is the basis of the system used by Jews, to whom one can say. 'You speak, therefore you be.' 
But the lie has a mortal enemy, namely the truth. For truth is the distinctive trait of Christianity." l"> 

Paulescu later wrote more works on the Jewish Problem, although not as well-known, including: Fiziologia Filozofica: Sinagoga §i biserica fa{a 
de pacificarea omenirii ("Philosophic Physiology: Synagogue and Church towards the pacification of mankind"),! 9 ] Complotjidano- 
francmasonic impotriva neamului Romanesc ("The Judeo-Masonic Plot against the Romanian People"),! 10 ! Degenerarea rasei jidove§ti 
("The Degeneration of the Jewish Race"), ^\ Desfraul Jidanilor ("Jewish Debauchery"), ! 12 1 and Talmacirea apocalipsului, soarta viitoare a 
jidanimii ("Interpretation of Revelation, the future fate of the Jews"). ! 13 1 

One of these later works, Degenerarea rasei jidove§ti ("The Degeneration of the Jewish Race"), argued that the brain size of Jews in general 
had decreased in size due to inbreeding and thus the Jewish people have degenerated in some areas. This book is often noted because it is 
clear that it has inaccurate data and is almost certainly biased against the Jews in its conclusions, and thus used to argue that Paulescu's other 
works on the Jews are invalid. However, Dr. Radu Mihai Crisan took a more reasonable stance when he pointed out his doubts about "The 
Degeneration of the Jewish Race" but still recognized the value of Paulescu's other works: 

"I have my entire respect forthe qualities of researcher of the man of science Paulescu materialized in multiple and profound studies 



and scientifical discoveries but I consider that he proceeded entirely as not being honest when showing the photos of the mentally 
retarded Jews (see pages 22 and 23 of the quoted study) he extrapolated the exception considering it as a rule and even an 
absolute one. And the relative nondevelopment of the thirties years of genetics cannot excuse him. As those Jews about whom inthe 
Hospital, the Coran, the Talmud, the Cahal, the Freemasonry he also tells that they are strategies that guide the World 
Freemasonry cannot be, in any case, some mentally retarded people." t 14 ' 

References 

1 . t Codrescu, Razvan. Doctorul Nicolae C. Paulescu sau Stiin^a marturisitoare ("Doctor Nicolae C. Paulescu or Witnessing Science"). 
Bucharest: Editura Christiana, 2009. 

2. t Constantin lonescu-Tirgoviste, "Insulin, the Molecule of the Century", Archives Of Physiology And Biochemistry, Vol. 104, No. 7, pp 807- 
813, 1996 (doi: 10.1 076/apab.1 04.7.807.1 31 06) 

3. t Ian Murray, "Paulesco and the Isolation of Insulin" (http://jhmas.oxfordjournals.Org/cgi/reprint/XXVI/2/1 50.pdf) , in Journal of the History of 
Medicine and Allied Sciences, 26 (1 971 ), no. 2, 1 50-1 57 

4. f Codreanu, Corneliu Zelea. For My Legionaries (http://www.archive.org/details/ForMyLegionariesThelronGuard) . Third Edition. 
Translated and edited by Dr. Dimitrie Gazdaru. York, SC: Liberty Bell Publications, 2003. 

5. t Paulecu, Nicolae C. Fiziologia Filozofica: Instincte Sociale - patimi si conflicte - remedii morale ("Philosophic Physiology: Social 
Instincts - passion and conflict- moral remedies"), Bucharest, 1910. 

6. t Paulecu, Nicolae C. Fiziologia Filozofica: Spitalul, Coranul, Talmudul, Cahalul, Franc-Masoneria ("Philosophic Physiology: The 
Hospital, the Koran, the Talmud, the Kahal and Freemasonry"), vol. II., Bucharest, 1913. 

7. t Paulecu, Nicolae C. Fiziologia Filozofica: Spitalul, Coranul, Talmudul, Cahalul, Franc-Masoneria ("Philosophic Physiology: The 
Hospital, the Koran, the Talmud, the Kahal and Freemasonry"), vol. II., Bucharest, 1913. 

8. t Paulecu, Nicolae C. Fiziologia Filozofica: Spitalul, Coranul, Talmudul, Cahalul, Franc-Masoneria ("Philosophic Physiology: The 
Hospital, the Koran, the Talmud, the Kahal and Freemasonry"), vol. II., Bucharest, 1913. 

9. t Paulescu, Nicolae. Fiziologia Filozofica: Sinagoga §i biserica fata de pacificarea omenirii ("Philosophic Physiology: Synagogue and 
Church towards the pacification of mankind"), 2 vols. Bucharest: Apararea Nafjonala, 1 923. 

1 0. t Paulescu, Nicolae. Complotjidano-francmasonic fmpotriva neamului Romanesc ("The Judeo-Masonic Plot against the Romanian 
People"), Bucharest: Apararea Natjonala, 1924. 

11. t Paulescu, Nicolae. Degenerarea rasei jidove§ti ("The Degeneration of the Jewish Race"), Bucharest, 1928. 

12. t Paulescu, Nicolae. Desfraul Jidanilor ("Jewish Debauchery"), Bucuresti, Tipografia Raiculescu, Closca 19, 1928. 

1 3. t Talmacirea apocalipsului, soarta viitoare ajidanimii ("Interpretation of Revelation, the future fate of the Jews"), Bucharest: 1 941 . 

14. f Crisan, Radu Mihai. "The Secret of the Fire Sword" (http://www.archive.org/details/TheSecretOfTheFireSword) , University Book 
Publishing House, Bucharest, 2006. 

External Links 

■ Site-ul Institutului National de Diabet, Nutritie si Boli Metabolice - N.C. Paulescu (http://www.paulescu.ro) (Site of the National Institute 
of Diabetes, Nutrition and Metabolic Diseases which was founded by Paulescu) 

■ Spitalul, Coranul, Talmudul, Kahalul si Francmasoneria de Nicolae Paulescu (http://www.noidacii.ro/Noi%20Dacii%20nr.20- 
21/Paulescu,%20Dr.%20N.C.%20-%20Spitalul,Coranul,Talmudul,Cahalul, Francmasoneria.pdf) - The Hospital, the Koran, the Talmud, 
the Kahal and Freemasonry by Paulescu (PDF file) 

■ Spitalul, Coranul, Talmudul, Kahalul si Francmasoneria (HTML) 
(http://ro.wikisource.org/wiki/Spitalul,_Coranul,_Talmudul,_Kahalul_%C8%99i_Francmasoneria)atWikisource 

■ "Nicolae Constantin Paulescu si noi" de Dr. Radu Mihai Crisan (http://monitor-cultural.com/arhiva/radu-mihai-crisan- 
%E2%80%9Enicolae-constantin-paulescu-si-noi%E2%80%9C/) 

Retrieved from "http://en.metapedia.org/wiki/Nicolae_Paulescu" Categories: Romanian | Physiologist 1 1869 births 1 1931 deaths | Professors | Scientists 

 

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